Monday, 15 August 2016

Introduction to Information Technology

Definition of Information Technology

  • Information Technology (IT) is defined as the use of computer hardware and software to store, retrieve, and manipulate information.
  • Information Technology (IT), as defined by the information Technology Association of America (ITAA) is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information syestems".
Advantages of Information Technology
     Information technology (IT) benefits the business world by allowing organizations to work more efficiently and to maximize productivity. Faster communication, electronic storage and the protection of records are advantages that IT can have on your enterprise. Information technology has to do with computer applications, on which nearly every work environment is dependent. Since computerized systems are so widely used, it is advantageous to incorporate information technology into your organization.
Storing and Protecting Information  

     Information technology creates electronic storage systems to protect your company's valuable records. According to the Graziadio Business Report, published by Pepperdine University, secure maintenance of customer and patient files is vital to business integrity. Storage systems, such as virtual vaults, keep information safe by only allowing certain users within your company to access, withdraw, add or change the documents. According to an article in Science Daily , IT security engineering systems protect your electronic information from being hacked, or wiped out during a technology disaster. Electronic security engineering means your valuable records will remain untouchable.

Automated processes 
     In business, people look for ways to do more work in a shouter amount of time. A November 2000 newsletter published by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco explains that information technology improves your company's efficiency by developing automated processes to take burden off your staff. In turn, your employees are free to work on other things while the computer runs their reports, creates queries, tracks projects and monitors financials.
Work Remotely 
     IT systems give you remote access to your company's electronic network, so that you can work from home or on the road. This accessibility allows you to increase your productivity because you can still get work done, even when you aren't physically in the office.
     Communication is essential to the business world, and information technolgy gives your company the resources it needs to communicate quickly and effectively. Your IT department can hook your employees up with email, video conferencing equipment and internal chat rooms, so that they always have an efficient way to conduct business and communicate.
  Disadvantages of Information Technology
     Information technology has changed the way that the world does business. Correspondence that once took weeks to get from one organization to another is now delivered instantly with the push of a button. Advances in telecommunication allow associates from all point of the globe to confer in a virtual environment, minimizing the need for business travel. Although the benefits of integrating information technology in business are many, there are also disadvantages to its use.
Implementation Exspenses 
     Every business must consider startup costs when implementing any type of information technology system. In addition to the cost of hardware and software, some technology vendors require businesses to purchase user licenses for each employee that will be operating the system. Businesses must examine the cost of training employees in unfamiliar technology. Although basic information technology systems may be user friendly, advanced programs still require formal instruction by an expert consultant. In addition to the startup expenses, information technology systems are expensive to maintain. Systems malfunction, and when they do, businesses must engage skilled technicians to troubleshoot and make the necessary repairs. These expenses present a major disadvantage of information technology in business, particularly to businesses that are entering the technology era for the first time.
Job Elimination 

Implementing information technology into business operations can save a great deal of time during the completion of daily tasks. Paperwork is processed immediately, and financial transactions are automatically calculated. Although businesses may view this expediency as a boon, there are untoward effects to such levels of automation. As technology improves, tasks that were formerly performed by human employees are now carried out by computer systems. For example, automated telephone answering systems have replaced live receptionists in many organizations. This leads to the elimination of jobs and, in some cases, alienation of clients. Unemployed specialists and once-loyal employees may have difficulty securing future employment.


Information Technology has replaced most positions which humans used to take up. Accounting is now being done by software, so accountants run out of opportunities. 

Internet security issue

For customers to perform online transactions, they have to provide their personal details. Experienced hackers can use this lop hole to channel this information and use it for their own needs.

Applications of Information Technology:

  1. Education
  2. Finance
  3. Government
  4. Health Care
  5. Science
  6. Publishing
  7. Travel 
  8. Manufacturing
1.Field Education
Today, educators are tunning to computers to assist with education. Many schools & companies equip labs & classrooms with computers.
  • Teachers : use IT to do research for reaching materials, participate in online forum and online reference, use software (prepare lecture notes)
  • Students : use IT as reference tools for finding information in the Internet.
  • School Administrators : use IT for keeping students and teachers record.
  • Examples of apllications:
  1. Couseware
  2. Education portal (e-portal)
  3. Web based learning 
  4. Learn menagement system
Couseware :
  1.  Computer programs or other material designed for use in an educational or training course
  2. Example : Chemistry CD- Courseware
 Web-based learning/ E-portal/ Educational portal:
  1. A method of learning in which students choose their materials and use them to study on their own.
  2. Learning process using or via Internet (example: online tuition).
  3. Students are able to access materials anytime and any where.
Learn menagement system : 

  1. A learning management system (LMS) is a software application, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology (also called e-learning) education courses ortraining programs.

 2. Field : Finance
Many people & companies use computers use computers to help manage their finances.
Usages : 
  1. Companies use IT (finance software) to balance checkbooks, pay bills, track personal income and expenses, manage investment, and evaluate financial plans.
Example of applications: 
  1. Online banking.
  2. Finance investment System/ Online investing.
  3. Electronic Payment System (EPS).
Online banking : 
  1. Is an electronic payment system that enables customers of a bank to conduct financial transactions (access account balances, pay bills & copy monthly transactions) on a website operated by the bank. 
  2. Example : Maybank2u, CIMBClicks, iRakyat, Amonline.

 Finance investment System/ Online investing :
  1. A system that allow investors buy and sells stocks & bonds online, with/ without using a broker
  2. Example :Permodalan Nasional Berhad (PNB), Bursa Malaysia.

  Electronic Payment System (EPS) :

  1. Electronic Payment System is a financial exchange that takes place online between buyers and sellers, i.e. a means of making payments over an electronic network such as the Internet.
  2. Example : Malaysia EPs (MEPS).

3. Field : Government

Most government offices have their own Web sites to provide society with up-to-date information & services.


  1. To provide citizens with uo-to-date information through the government Web sites.
  2. Helps to enhance the conveniece, accessibility, and quality of interactions between the government and the cittizens.
  3. Employees of government agencies use IT as part og their daily routine

Examples of application :

  1.  e-Filing
  2.  myGovernment
  3. e-Penyata Gaji & Laporan.
  1. Online system for declaring tax

e-Penyata gaji & Laporan
  1. Online system that allow government staffs to view and print monthly pay slip.

4. Field: Health Care 
Nearly every area of health care today uses computers or various purposes: 

  1. Hospitals & doctors use IT to maintain & access patient records, store personal health history including prescription, lab test result, doctor visit allergies and immunizations.
  2. Doctors use e-mail to correspond with patients
Examples of applications:
  1. Telemedicine 
  2. Telesurgery
  1. Health-care professionals in separate locations conduct live conferences on the computer regarding their patients
  2. For Example: a doctor at one location can have  cenference with a doctor at another location to discuss a bone X-ray. Live images of each doctor, along with the X-ray, are displayed on each doctor's computer.

Field: Science

Use computers to assist them with collecting, analyzing, and modeling data. scientists also use the Internet to communicate with colleagues around the world.

  • A cochlear implant
  • An electrodes implant
  • A neural network
A cochlear implant
  • It is a embedded chip that allows a deaf person to listen. 

An electrodes implant
  • Electrodes implanted in the brain stop tremors associated with Parkinson's disease
 Field : Publishing

The process of making works available to the public. These works include books, magazines, newspapers, music, film, and video. Many publishers make their works available online and some Web sites allow you to copy the work, such as a book or music.

  • Special software assists graphic designers in developing pages that include text, graphics, and photos.
  •  Filmmakers using software in creating and editing film.
  • Artists using software in composing and enhancing songs.
  • Online newspapers and magazines
 Artists in composing and enhancing songs using software such as

Field: Travel 

Vehicle manufactured today often include some type og onboard navigation system to help you navigate from one location to another. Many mobile devices such as smart phones have built-in navigation systems.

Example of applications: 
  • Car Navigation System by Global Positioning System (GPS)
  •  Automatic roaming by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
  • Online Intelligence Transportation IS(ITIS)
  • Online Reservation 
Car Navigation System by Global Positioning System (GPS):
  • GPS Car System- is a radio navigation system that allows land, sea, and airbone users to determine their exact location, velocity, and time of their destination. 
Automatic roaming by Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM):
  • Telecommunication companies provides automatic roaming for travelers to travel abroad.
Online INtelligence Transportation IS (ITIS)
  • The application of advanced information and communication technology to surface transportation in order to achieve enhanced safety and mobility while reducing the environmental impact of transportation.

Online Reservation
  • Transportation and accommodation reservation can be done through a Web site.

Field: Manufacturing
Latest technology have helped in making manufacturing process more effective.
  • Reduce product development costs, Shorten a product's tme to market, and stay ahead of the competition. 
Example of applications:  
1. Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM).
2. Computer-aided design (CAD).
3. A Bar Code System.

Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM):
1. The use of computer software to control machine tools and related machinery in the manufacturing of work pieces.

No comments:

Post a Comment